The research progress and more
One of my recent research articles
The Multiple high b value DWI and its advance quantum biological interpretationa case presentation.
Abstract
Initialed by Schrodinger’s Concept of negative entropy, Crystal; with the idea of yin and yang from Chinese philosophy, I hypothesized the Advance Quantum biology (AQB) in my Book (The collection of the essays on the issue of consciousness and high negative entropy). According AQB, I develop out the socalled MRI hologram. With this new concept, for multiple b value DWI, I developed out a new data process and interpretation which called as AQB process which is different from the current data process and interpretation of MB (Molecular biology). I applied it to one of research article of multiple b value DWI from PLOS; and compared it to the current MB data process and interpretation. I found. This new AQB process looked like more completely, more fundamentally and more substantially to present out the T2WI MRI signal, and provided significant advantage than other MB process and interpretation..
The conclusion: for multiple b value DWI (even T2 MRI signal), other than the current MB process and interpretation in molecular level, there is another side of story, AQB data process and interpretation could be provide more substantial presentation than MB; it is done in the advance quantum level.
Thus, for Hypothesis of AQB, for AQB data process and interpretation, they are new; they are worth to have further investigation and study.
Cover letter for above article.
AQB  Advance quantum biology,
MBMolecular biology,
QM/MMQuantum mechanics/ matter mechanics (Quantum statistics according Copenhagen interpretation).
QM/AT Quantum mechanics/ Advance non equilibrium thermodynamics (Quantum statistics according Schrodinger’s interpretation negative entropy, crystal).
ST2WI Total T2 MRI signal from Te (0ms) to Te (200ms)
DWIDiffusion weight image,
Block signal of the two different b value DWI
Block signal of the two different T2 .
Z, Z time of (Chi square distribution)
p/Z 1/Z Distribution of p
Key Word.
AQB, MB, QM/MM, QM/AT, ST2WI (Total T2 MRI signal), multiple b value DWI, ;.Z, p/Z
Part one
Introduction.
11) Advance Quantum Biology
l Three presentation of life system.
l The relation between Advance quantum biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine.
l MRI technology.
l Multiple b value DWI and its rich content of quantum information.—1
l Multiple b value DWI and its rich content of quantum information.2
1) Three presentation of life system.
According Schrodinger’s “What is Life”, for life system, there were three presentations [1]:

Molecular Biology,

Quantum Biology,

3. Advance Quantum Biology.
Figure 1
Figure 1
A) is molecule ; B) is quantum behind molecule; C) is advance quantum (high negative entropy, crystal) behind molecule.
Among A) the being of molecules, B) the being of quantum behind molecule, C) the being of advance quantum (high negative entropy, crystal) behind molecule ; according Schrodinger’s idea: [1]
A) is the epiphenomenal illusion of lifeMolecular Biology, which indeed is scientific medicineWestern medicine;and it is the socalled “MM”Matter Mechanics..
B) (A+B) is non crystal illusion of life—Quantum Biology, which indeed is Evidance Basic Medicine;and it is QMQuantum Mechanics under the Copenhagen interpretation which this QM could be converted to be MM.
Thus, Combining A) and B) , we could have socalled QM/MM.
C) (A+C) is complete presentaion of life Advance Quantum Biology, which it poses high negative entropy,and it is crystallized. It is the fundamental presentation of life system.It is the socalled QM/AT.
Thus, for life system, there are two presentations:
a) The epiphenomenal illusion which is QM/MMMB;
b) The fundamenal presentation which is QM/ATAQB.
2) The relation between Advance quantum biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine.
The system of advance quantum biology is unable to be expressed by classic physicsNewtonian; and it also is unable to be expressed by classic quantum theory according Copenhegan interpretation and other approaches.Reference [1]
But the system of advance quantum biology is indeed the advance non equilicbrium thermodynamic system [1]; which it has basic thermodynamic mathematic function is :
E==(S).T.(V). Here, E as free energy, (S) as negative entropy, T as temperature, V as space.
From E==T(S)Và E, (S),T,V.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Upper part: Dot point of vertical line, as advance thermodynamic microsystem (Quanta); according E==T(S).V ,E –free energy, T—temperature,(S) negative entropy, Vspace.Thus, each quanta == F[E.T.(S).V]; so, it has four dimensions.
Lower Part: coupling between 1) level (Lower level) and 2) level (Higher level); a) Quanta jump up from 1) to 2) due to the input of the inflow of negative entropy (free energy);b) Quanta fall down from 2) to 1) due to the dissipative effect.Thus,the branch couplings are established.
From Figure 2)
Upper part,Dot point of vertical line, as Advance thermodynamic microsystem (Quanta); according E==T(S).V ,E –free energy, T—temperature,(S) negative entropy, Vspace.Thus, each quanta == F[E.(S).T.V]; so, it has four dimensions which are E, (S),T and V..
Lower Part, coupling between 1) level (Lower level) and 2) level (Higher level),a)Quanta jump up from 1) to 2) due to the input of the inflow of negative entropy (free energy);b) Quanta fall down from 2) to 1) due to the dissipative effect. Thus, the branch couplings are established.
For each quanta,there is E==T(S).V; thus,we have four dimensions: E, (S), T and V.
Then, we could deliver out [1]:
1) Eà Yin and Yang,
2) (S)àempty and fullness,
3) T à cold and hot
4) V(space)—outside and inside.,
Thus,the yin and yang theory of TCM ( Yin and yang, Full and Empty, Hot and Cold, Inside and Outside) could completely express the advance non equilibrium thermodynamic system,the system of advance quantum biology, the life system .
Therefore, the system of advance quantum biology is the system of yin and yang.Due to the theory of yin and yang, the system of advance quantum medicine could be expressed out;while due to advance quantum biology, the theory of yin and yang has its ontological basic.
Thus, we could conclude, for life system, for human being, its scientific presentation only is the epiphenomenal illusion of life , its fundamental expression must be the advance quantum biological presentation which poses high negative entropy,and it could be expressed by the theory of Yin and Yang..
3) MRI technology.
In another hand, we find, in conventional science and technology (Chemical test, DNA test, CT, PET, Ultrasound.) they only illustrate the existence of the part of physics of life system (Molecules and beyond); conventional science and technology could not show the part of the existence of advance quantum biological presentation which is advance nonequilibrium thermodynamics system of life system.
There is one exception: MRI. In MRI technology, under high magnetic field (high Tesla), the profile of magnetic activity (during Precession and Relaxation) of life systems could show the behave of the advance nonequilibrium thermodynamics of life system (The activity of system of advance quantum biology) . Thus, between the profile of magnetic activity of the life system and the advance nonequilibrium thermodynamic activities of life system (The activity of system of advance quantum biology) they are isomorphic .Thus, we can use MRI technology to explore the advance nonequilibrium thermodynamic activities of life system (The activity of system of advance quantum biology) which included the phenomena of yin and yang, the high negative entropy, further explore the socalled “Physics, Qi and Shen” of life system.
Thus, MRI signals provide very rich information regard the existence and behave of quanta of life system.
According the above idea, the socalled Hologram MRI technology (PQS Mode of MRI) is developed [1]. With this MRI Hologram, we could assess the existence and behave of quantum of life system.
In current MRI, according the MRI signals of one or several tangents of the MRI space [1], these MRI signals usually are converted and interpreted as the physics (Morphology), they are interpreted as images of T1WI, T2WI, PD, T2*, MTR, VBM, FMRI, DWI, DTI,MRS,RFMRI, ALFF;….
These images only lay part of physics (morphology), they encounter the activity of some partial quanta, but these quanta are converted to physics; thus, theoretically, they are considered as done by Copenhagen interpretation.
Thus, they collect a few of quanta information, and converted them into physics (morphology). Indeed, these MRI images cover up the major part of quantum activity; and they abandon the major part of quantum.
4) Multiple b value DWI and its rich content of quantum information.—1
Basic on the ideas of the multiple b value DWI (and MPRage), the MRI Hologram is developed. In current MRI, multiple b value DWI is interpreted as physics phenomena by molecular biological approach, not the phenomena of advance quantum activity by advance quantum biological approach. But indeed, for multiple b value DWI, it stores very rich content of quantum information.
Figure 3.
Figure 3.
The distribution of T2 MRI signals
Vertical, the amplitude of T2 MRI signalsfree energy; horizontal—time (Te)
From figure 3, we could have Table 1.
According Table 1, we have the total T2WI MRI signal, ST2WI == (α,t)
Here, α1, α2….αn, the magnetic grade; ttime.
Here, in detail.
Look at Table 1
Table 1.
T2 Signal decay.
α (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and 10)
1x10

2x10

3x10

4x10

5x10

6x10

7x10

8x10

9x10

10x10

1x9

2x9

3x9

4x9

5x9

6x9

7x9

8x9

9x9


1x8

2x8

3x8

4x8

5x8

6x8

7x8

8x8



1x7

2x7

3x7

4x7

5x7

6x7

7x7




1x6

2x6

3x6

4x6

5x6

6x6





1x5

2x5

3x5

4x5

5x5






1x4

2x4

3x4

4x4







1x3

2x3

3x3








1x2

2x2









1x1










Te(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and 10)
In Table 1, Vertical, the amplitude of magnetic; horizontal, the time.
The curve is the T2 signals decay, T2 decreased when the time pass.(T2 decay)
In first column, we have:
T2 ==(1x1)+ (1x2)+ (1x3)+ (1x4)+ (1x5)+ (1x6)+ (1x7)+ (1x8)+ (1x9)+ (1x10).
Thus, originally it is high; then gradually decrease, in 10th column, it is only (10x10), indeed is (1x10), which is low..
From MRI technology, if we have full precession under BSSFP;
then，we have the T2 signal distribution : T2 (Te) =T2(00) .T2(00)( α as zero, t==0)
Here we have MRI space of T2 as {[α (1,2,3,…n)].[Te (1,2,3,…n)]}.
According the theory of (QM/AT) [1] and MRI technology [1]
Then we have ＝T2(00) T2[tjt(j+1)] (1)
We have block signal as : == {[α(j)—α(J+1)] [Te(j)—Te(J+1))]}
Further, we have: == T2 α(j) Te(j)—T2 [α(J+1)][Te(J+1)] (2)
Here,== T2 [α(j) Te(j)]—T2 [α(J+1)][Te(J+1)] is block signal in magnetic space of {[α(j)—α(J+1)] [Te(j)—Te(J+1))]}
Obviously, T2 [α(j) Te(j)] and T2 [α(J+1)][Te(J+1)] are measurable by current MRI.
Compare to Table 1; any block, its T2 MRI signal could be expressed as
== T2 α(j) Te(j)—T2 [α(J+1)][Te(J+1)].
With these s, we could have the whole table 1 which represents the total T2 signals.
And these total T2 signals could be delivered out by multiple b value.
In detail:
According Table 1, from above (1) and (2), in horizontal direction, theoretically, in magnetic level of (αj), we have:
Due to： S(T2WI)(αj)＝ (00)(dTe ;.
Thus, we have ST2WI (α1)== {(T2 α(j) Te(1)—T2 [α(j+1)][Te(2)]}+ {(T2 α(j) Te(2)—T2 [α(j+1)][Te(3)]}+ {(T2 α(j) Te(3)—T2 [α(j+1)][Te(4)]}…….
+{(T2 α(j) Te(n1)—T2 [α(j+1)][Te(n)]} (3)
Technically, then, we have all( α 1, α2,….. αn)
The sum of S(T2WI) (α1,α2,…αn) as :
S(T2WI)== S(T2WI)( α1) + S(T2WI) (α2)+ S(T2WI) (α3)+…… S(T2WI) (αn)
Thus,
S(T2WI)= {(T2 α(1) Te(1)—T2 [α(2)][Te(2)]}+ {(T2 α(1) Te(2)—T2 [α(2)][Te(3)]}+
{(T2 α(1) Te(3)—T2 [α(2)][Te(4)]}……. {(T2 α(1) Te(n1)—T2 [α(2)][Te(n)]}
+ {(T2 α(2) Te(1)—T2 [α(3)][Te(2)]}+ {(T2 α(2) Te(2)—T2 [α(3)][Te(3)]}+
{(T2 α(2) Te(3)—T2 [α(3)][Te(4)]}……. {(T2 α(2) Te(n1)—T2 [α(3)][Te(n)]}
+ {(T2 α(3) Te(1)—T2 [α(4)][Te(2)]}+ {(T2 α(3) Te(2)—T2 [α(4)][Te(3)]}+
{(T2 α(3) Te(3)—T2 [α(4)][Te(4)]}……. {(T2 α(3) Te(n1)—T2 [α(4)][Te(n)]}
+….
+ {(T2 α(n1) Te(1)—T2 [α(n)][Te(2)]}+ {(T2 α(n1) Te(2)—T2 [α(n)][Te(3)]}+
{(T2 α(n1) Te(3)—T2 [α(n)][Te(4)]}……. {(T2 α(n1) Te(n1)—T2 [α(n)][Te(n)]}
For ST2WI, (α,t)
According the concept of dissipation of advance thermodynamics, under shimming idea, that is table 2
α (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and 10)
10x10

10x10

10x10

10x10

10x10

10x10

10x10

10x10

10x10

10x10

9x9

9x9

9x9

9x9

9x9

9x9

9x9

9x9

9x9


8x8

8x8

8x8

8x8

8x8

8x8

8x8

8x8



7x7

7x7

7x7

7x7

7x7

7x7

7x7




6x6

6x6

6x6

6x6

6x6

6x6





5x5

5x5

5x5

5x5

5x5






4x4

4x4

4x4

4x4







3x3

3x3

3x3








2x2

2x2









1x1










.
Te(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and 10)
Table 2
In Table 2, in the red block, their T2 MRI signals could be expressed out; they are related to the input RF from precession. For the black blocks, the T2 MRI signals are hided; they are related to magnetic transfer.
For this Table 2, that is the all T2 MRI signal of this ROI (Almost), reflex to the all the quanta this ROI relieved (Radiated). (Include expressed signal and “hide” quanta signal inside magnetic transfer).
If we do not adopt the shimming idea, we could have : (T2 α(1) Te(1)—T2 [α(2)][Te(2)]}+ (T2 α(2) Te(2)—T2 [α(3)][Te(3)]}+ (T2 α(3) Te(3)—T2 [α(4)][Te(4)]}……. (T2 α(n1) Te(n1)—T2 [α(n)][Te(n)]}.that is the MRI signals from red block.
This is partial T2 signal, and it is the express T2 signal E(T2) ..
In Table 2,ET2==(1x1)+ (2x2)+ (3x3)+ (4x4)+ (5x5)+ (6x6)+ (7x7)+ (8x8)+ (9x9)+ (10x10).
And it is equal to: ET2==(1x1)+ (1x2)+ (1x3)+ (1x4)+ (1x5)+ (1x6)+ (1x7)+ (1x8)+ (1x9)+ (1x10).
That is the total T2 MRI signal of the first column.
Thus, for the whole course of T2 MRI signals, it could be presented as
A) The epiphenomenal illusion, and it is (4)
B) The fundamental presentation, and it is : ST2WI== (α,t) (5)
For( 4) and (5), that is the key to understand the new data process and interpretation for multiple b value DWI.
5) Multiple b value DWI and its rich content of quantum information.2
For b value, it is correlate to S(T2WI)，it also has two presentations.
More detail, as the below:
Due to S = S_{o}e^{−bD } here, S as the T2 MRI signal; S_{o } as the T2 MRI signal at the b ==0; (Which indeed is t==0.)
Thus, we have ST2WI== (bD) d(b) d(D) ;
Then S(T2WI)==(bD) db dD == (α,t)
Thus (bD)～ (α,t) b ～(α/D,t)
According (1）, we have == {[α(j)—α(J+1)] [Te(j)—Te(J+1))]}
According b, and [5], we have ==
== {[α(j)—α(J+1)] [Te(j)—Te(J+1))]}==
Thus block signal of ; and b (ADC) is the signal measurement of combine (α/D) and (Te) under the view of “diffusion”.
WE have Table 3.:
α/D
0 1 2 3 4 5 à Te
Table 3
There are block (1),(2),(3).(4).
Thus, b1 (ADC)==(1)
b2 (ADC) ==(1)+2 (2)
b3 (ADC) ==(1)+2(2)+3(3)
b4 (ADC)==(1)+2(2)+3(3)+4(4)
Therefore, b value DWI (ADC) indeed is the cumulate T2 function, (please note, cumulate function is different to distribution function.)
We conclude: ST2WI is the cumulate function of (α) and (t) under magnetic dissipative view (Quantum) ; while b (ADC) is the cumulate function of (α/D) and (t) under the view of proton diffusion (Molecular ).
Further, according and n, we could convert b (ADC) to be the cumulate function of and n, under the view of proton diffusion (Molecular).
Table 4 .
à n
Table 4 Vertical  ,and horizontal n
According Table 4, we could easily express out the ST2WI .
Therefore, for multiple b value DWI (ADC),according Table 4, it could have two presentations and interpretations:
a) The epiphenomenal presentation and interpretation, as the presentation of molecular biology (MB). (Table 5)
b) The complete presentation and interpretation, as the presentation of advance quantum biology (AQB). (Table 6)
Table 5
1x10

1x9

1x8

1x7

1x 6

1x5

1x4

1x3

1x2

1x1

Table 5
Multiple b value DWI according MB
Here, b1==(1x1); b2==(1x1)+(1x2); ……b10==(1x1)+(1x2)+(1x3)+…..(1x10)
Table 6
(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and 10)
10x10

10x10

10x10

10x10

10x10

10x10

10x10

10x10

10x10

10x10

9x9

9x9

9x9

9x9

9x9

9x9

9x9

9x9

9x9


8x8

8x8

8x8

8x8

8x8

8x8

8x8

8x8



x7

7x7

7x7

7x7

7x7

7x7

7x7




6x6

6x6

6x6

6x6

6x6

6x6





5x5

5x5

5x5

5x5

5x5






4x4

4x4

4x4

4x4







3x3

3x3

3x3








2x2

2x2









1x1










n (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and 10)
Table 6
Multiple b value DWI according AQB
Here, b1==(1x1); b2==(1x1)+(2x2)+(2x2);….
b10==(1x1)+[(2x2)+(2x2)]+….[(10x10)+(10x10)+(10x10)+(10x10)+(10x10)+(10x10)+(10x10)+ (10x10)+(10x10)+(10x10); which is the whole table
Thus, according table 5 and table 6, for proceeding and interpreting multiple b value DWI, we could have:
1) The Epiphenomenal interpretation molecular biological interpretation; which are parts of the first column.
2) The complete interpretation Advance quantum biological interpretation; which is the whole Table 6.
For multiple b value DWI (ADC), in current MRI research articles, people only pursued the (1)the molecular biological process and interpretation; no one does (2)advance quantum biological process and interpretation..[6][7][8][9][10][11]
Comparing (1) to (2), for (1) data processes and interpretation, it abandons a lot of information of quanta activity (Magnetic transfer); it has significant deficiency from the point of Bioinformation.
Thus, we have clear ideas to present T2 signals:
1) From Table 1,2; we have: S(T2WI) == (α,t); thus, there are rich quanta behind molecules.
2) From Table 3, 4; we have: S(T2WI)== (α,t)==(bD) db dD
==[(α/D),(t)] d(α/D) dt == (,n); thus, these rich quanta behind molecules could be expressed by multiple b value DWI according AQB approach.
Part Two. Case study.
l The materials
l signals calculation and p calculation by current b value DWI with one of MB approach
l Calculation of signal and quanta according AQB (Severe patient group, mild patient group, indistinct patient group and control group)
In this article, basic on one of research articles of multiple b value DWI which proceeded by MB approach, I investigate the content of quantum information of these multiple b value DWI according AQB approach.
1) The materials:
Here, the research article of multiple b value DWI I cited is:
Yasuhiko Tachibana,et, Analysis of Multiple B Value Diffusion Weighted Imaging in Pediatric Acute Encephalopathy Plos, Published online 2013 Jun 3. doi: 10.1371 [11]
Basic on this research article, I do my study.
2) Signals calculation by current b value DWI with one of MB approach.
Basic on this paper of [11].
21) Experiment Citation.
21a) 16 control, (1–11 years old, 9 boys, 7 girls), and 15atients , encephalopathy ,(1–10 years old), mean 2.34; 8 boys,7 girls.
21b) Rois. 10 areas of brain.
21c) MRI Data as following.(Multiple b value DWI)
Table 7

Control

Encephalopathy

Value u (Standard deviationб)

Pvalue

(
[Fraction of high
bpair (]

0.735 (0.028)

Severe
Mild
Indistinct

0.810 (0.052)
0.773 (0.033)
0.765(0.028)

<0.001
0.038
0.015

ADC b (0—500)

1.097
(0.055)

Severe
Mild
Indistinct

0.804(0,217)
1.021 (0.095)
1.048 (0.064)

<0.001
0.111
0.063

ADC b(5001500)

0.770
(0.029)

Severe
Mild
Indistinct

0.565 (0.150)
0.746(0.047)
0.774 (0.047)

<0.001
0.054
1.477

ADC
B(20002500)

0.564 (0.040)

Severe
Mild
Indistinct

0.424 (0.120)
0,574 (0.045)
0.595(0.037)

<0.001
2.697
0.533

Table 7
The control, the patients groups: the value (Mean) u , the standard deviation Б,
pProbability, percentage
This Table 7 could be illustrated as following according molecular biology.
Table 8

Control

Patients

(

CA4a+CA5a/ CA2a+CA3a

PA4a+PA5a/ PA2a+PA3a

ADC (15002500)

CA4a+CA5a

PA4a+PA5a

ADC (5001500)

CA2a+CA3a

PA2a+PA3a

ADC (0500)

CA1a

PA1a

Table 8
CA : Control; PA: Patients. A1,b(0500); A2+A3, b(5001500);
A4+A5, b(15002500).
Here, according molecular biology,
M[ADC (0500)]==1xA1
M[ADC (5001500)]===1x (A2a+A3a)
M[ADC (15002500)]==1x (A4a+A5a)
M[]==[1x (A4a+A5a)]/ [1x (A2a+A3a)]
MMolecular biology.
In the article [11], it created the sectional signal b( 500—1500) as slow signal (indeed, it is MRI block signal), b (1500—25000) as fast signal,(Block MRI signal too);and ratio of (==b(1500— 2500)/b (5001500); and concluded , ( is the more sensitive indicator for differentiating acute encephalopathy from normal brain according the view of physics ( P< 0.05).
Obviously, in this data process and interpretation, it pursued the MB approach.
Next, I will investigate the content of quantum information of these multiple b value DWI according AQB approach.(Quantum energy and number of quanta)
3) Calculation of signal and quanta according AQB (Severe patient group, mild patient group, indistinct patient group and control group) .[1]
31) From the socalled advance quantum biology, MRI hologram could completely depict out the quantum activity of life. In [11] case, it could be depicted out as:
Table 9
A5

A5a
b(20002500)

A5b
(20002500)

A5c
(20002500)

A5d
(20002500)

A5e
(20002500)

A4

A4a
b(15002000)

A4b
(15002000)

A4c
(15002000)

A4d
(15002000)


A3

A3a
b(10001500)

A3b
(10001500)

A3c
(10001500)



A2

A2a
b(5001000）

A2b
(5001000)




A1

A1a
B (0500)





Table 9
Quantum activity: A1==A1a, A2==A2a+A2b, A3==A3a+A3b+A3c, A4==A4a+A4b+A4c+A4d, A5==A5a+A5b+A5c+A5d+A5e.
Here, according advance quantum biology (Put all the activity of quantum into account)
a) QA1===QADC（0—500）== 1xA1a [QA1,the quanta activity in b(0—500)]
b) Q（A2+A3）===QADC（500—1500）== (A2a+A3a)+ (A2b+A3b)+(A3c)==2.5 (A2a+A3a) ,
here, A3c～1/2(A2a+A3a) (Quanta activity in b (5001500)
c) Q(A4+A5)=== QADC（1500—2500）==
(A4a+A5a)+(A4b+A5b)+(A4c+A5c)+(A4d+A5d)+(A5e)==4.5 (A4a+A5a) ,
here, A5c～1/2(A2a+A3a) quanta activity in b(15002500)
32) According advance quantum biology, we do the quanta calculation.[1]
A） Severe patient group.
A1) Signal energy
If we focus on severe patients, we could have:
Table 10
A4+A5

0.424x10^{3}
(0.120)

0.424 x10^{3} (0.120)

0.424x10^{3} (0.120)

0.424x10^{3} (0.120)

0.424x1/2 x10^{3} (0.120)

A2+A3

0.565x10^{3}
(0.150)

0.565 x10^{3} (0.150)

0.565x1/2 x10^{3} (0.150)



A1

0.804x10^{3} (0.217)





Table 10
Due to A1==ADC [b (0500)]== 0.804x10^{3}
A2+A3==ADC [b(5001500) ]==0.565x10^{3}
A4+A5==ADC [b(1500—2500)]==0.424x10^{3}.
For the physics activity which caused by RF precession, from the view of current molecular biology, we have:
A(RF)== A1+(A2+A3)+(A4+A5) ===1.795x10^{3} ; that is the total energy dissipated according the view of MB (not include the magnetic transfer during quanta activity)
But from the view of advance quantum biology, for the whole quantum activity in MRI space （Caused by RF precession and Magnetic transfer—MT）. We have
A(WQ)==1xA1+2.5x(A2+A3)+4.5x(A4+A5)===0.804x10^{3}+1.413x10^{3}+1.908x10^{3}==4.125x10^{3}.
That is the total energy according the view of AQB.( Include Magnetic transfer during quanta activity plus total energy dissipated)
That also is the total energy of quantum activity of the relaxation of T2 in the “magnetic area “of b(02500) (Partial Yang).
[Here, we also have: A(WQ)/A(RF)==4.125/1.795==2.3. This ratio is very interesting, it is correlated to the “power of life”, which is worth to have further investigation.]
A2) Quanta calculation.
In the ROI we view, according E==T(S).V, this ROI is in (E,T,(S),V) crystal condition.
After full precession, there is relaxation (dissipative process): In T2 axis, the relief of quanta are measured and become T2 signals; it lasts 3 t(T2)==200 ms; early are big quanta, late are fine quanta, middle time are middle quanta; in the ROI we view, in the area of b(02500),the total energy of quantum activity is 4.125x10^{3} (Include magnetic transfer) while the energy which expresses out is 1,795x10^{3} ( not include magnetic transfer or very little)
Please notice, the total energy of quantum activity is different to the energy which expresses out ; the energy of Magnetic Transfer (Coupling phenomena) also is included into total energy of quantum activity.
[In T1 axis , the relieved quanta are receive, it lasts 3 t(T1)==2000 ms, early are big quanta, late are fine quanta, middle time are middle quantaMPRAGE mode could measure out those MRI signals]
In the multiple b value DWI, it provides the sectional MRI T2 signals.
For these MRI signals, in this article [11] , according molecular biology (MB), it already is processed and interpreted; which we quoted in (2 signals calculation and p calculation by current b value DWI with one of MB approach)
Here, basic on advance quantum biology (AQB), we process these data.
Thus, we do the Quantum number calculation for severe patients
A2a) Big Quanta: {Physics[b(0—500)] };
E==0.804x10^{3}, RF== 43 MHz.
Number of quanta:
Due to: from [43 (42.58) MHz0 MHZ], its midpoint is about 20 MHz, and that is average RF in this [b(0500)].
Thus, according : E==N h (RF); we could have N1, which is small:
[N1==1XE/h(RF20 MHzs)===0.804x10^{3}/h.20MHzs]. h==6.62606957(29)x10^{−34} j.s;
We get: S(N1) ==0.804x10^{3}/h.20MHzs ；[S (N1)big quanta for severe patient group.]
in view of Hz, therefore, we have (Big quanta): SQ (A1)==0.804x10^{3}/h.20x10^{6} {[SQ(A1)]The number of big quanta for severe patient group]}.
^{That is the total amount of involved big quanta of this ROI in this severe patient group. }
A2b) middle quanta [Qib(500—1500)]
According above method, we could have
For middle quanta, E==1.413x10^{3}; RF==20x10^{3}
Thus, we have involved middle quanta: SQ(A2)==1.413x10^{3}/h.20x10^{3}
A2c) Fine quanta [Shen—b(15002500)]
For fine quantum, E==1.908x10^{3}; RF==20
Thus, we have involved fine quanta: SQ(A3)==1.908x10^{3}/h.20
A2d) Summary
For severe patients, their average quanta in the ROI are:
Big quanta: SQ A1==0.804x10^{3}/h.20x10^{6}
Middle quanta: SQ(A2+A3)==1.413x10^{3}/h.20x10^{3}
Fine quanta: SQ(A4+A5)==1.908x10^{3}/h.20
Thus, we have SQ A1, SQ (A2+A3), SQ (A4+A5) as the number of big quanta, middle quanta, fine quanta of the severe patient group. (SSevere, Q Quantum)
Finally, we have (Quanta number): QA3>> QA2 >> QA1
B) The Quantum number calculation for mild patient group.
According the above discussion, we have the following:
For mild patient group, we have:
Table 11
A4+A5

(A4+A5) a 0.574 (0.045)

(A4+A5) b 0.574 (0.045)

(A4+A5) c 0.574 (0.045)

(A4+A5) d 0.574 (0.045)

(A4+A5)e 0.574 x1/2
(0.045)

A2+A3

(A2+A3)a
0.746 (0.047)

(A2+A3)b
0.746 (0.047)

(A3+A4)c
0.746 x1/2 (0.047)



A1

A1 a
1.021 (0.095)





^{ Table 11}
^{Quantum energy of mild patients group according AQB}
^{ A1==A1a, A2+A3== (A2+A3)a+ (A2+A3)b+ (A2+A3)x1/2}
^{ }A4+A5== (A4+A5)a+ (A4+A5)b+ (A4+A5)+ (A4+A5)+ (A4+A5)x1/2^{}
^{Thus, we have Q(A1) ==1.021; RF==}20x10^{6}
Q(A2 +A3)==1.865; RF==20x10^{3}
Q(A4+A5) ==2.583 ; RF==20
Thus, for mild patients group,we have
Big Quanta: MQA1== 1.021x10^{3}/h.20x10^{3}
Middle Quanta : MQ(A2+A3)==1.865x10^{3}/h.20x10^{3}
Fine Quanta：MQ(A4+A5)== 2.583 x10^{3}/h.20
^{ }
^{C) The Indistinct group patients}
^{ We have:}
^{Table 12}
A4+A5

(A4+A5)a 0.595 (0.037)

(A4+A5)b 0.595 (0.037)

(A4+A5)c 0.595 (0.037)

(A4+A5)d 0.595 (0.037)

(A4+A5)e 0.595x1/2 (0.037)

A2+A3

(A2+A3)a
0.774 (0.045)

(A2+A3)b
0.774 (0.045)

(A2+A3)c
0.774 x1/2 (0.045)



A1

(A1)a
1.048 (0.069)





Table 12
^{Quantum energy of Indistinct patients group according AQB}
Q(A1)==1.048; RF==20x10^{6}
Q(A2+A3) ==1.935; RF==20x10^{3}
Q(A4+A4) ==2.678 ; RF==20
^{ }Thus, for Indistinct patients group, we have:^{ }
Big Quanta: DQA1== 1.048x10^{3}/h.20x10^{6}
Middle Quanta:DQ(A2+A3)== 1.935x10^{3}/h.20X10^{3}
Fine Quanta: DQ(A4+A5)== 2.678 x10^{3}/h.20
D) For Control group patients.
We have
Table 13
A4+A5

(A4+A5)a
0.564 (0.040)

(A4+A5)b
0.564 (0.040)

(A4+A5)c
0.564 (0.040)

(A4+A5)d
0.564 (0.040)

(A4+A5)e
0.564 x1/2 (0.040)

A2+A3

(A2+A3)a
0.770 (0.029)

(A2+A3)b
0.770 (0.029)

(A4+A5)c
0.770 x1/2
(0.029)



A1

A1a
1.097 (0.055)





Table 13
Therefore:
Q(A1)：E==1.097; RF==20^{6}
Q(A2+A3)：E ==1.925; RF==20^{3}
Q(A4+A5):E ==2.538 ; RF==20
Thus, for control patients group, we have
Big Quanta: CQ(A1) = 1.097x10^{3}/h.20x10^{6}
Middle Quanta: CQ(A2+A3)== 1.925x10^{3}/h.20X10^{3}
Fine Quanta: CQ(A4+A5)== 2.538x10^{3}/h.20.
E) Summary according AQB in [11] article..
We have
Table 14

Control

Patient

Quanta

(A4+A5)
Fine Quanta

2.538x10^{3}/h.20

Severe
Mild
Indistinct

1.908x10^{3}/h.20
2.583 x10^{3}/h.20
2.678 x10^{3}/h.20

(A2+A3)
Mid Quanta

1.925x10^{3}/h.20X10^{3}

Severe
Mild
Indistinct

1.413x10^{3}/h.20x10^{3}
1.865x10^{3}/h.20x10^{3}
1.935x10^{3}/h.20X10^{3}

A1 (big Quanta)

1.097x10^{3}/h.20x10^{6}

Severe
Mild
Indistinct

0.804x10^{3}/h.20x10^{6}
1.021x10^{3}/h.20x10^{6}
1.048x10^{3}/h.20x10^{6}

Table 14
The summary of quanta number according AQB
Thus, basic on multiple b value DWI, we could calculate out the numbers of (involved) quanta in different level for ROI. For these numbers of (involved) quanta in different level for ROI, they could be interpreted as the content of the quanta of different level for this ROI.
F) Summary according MB in [11] article..
We have: Quanta number according MBCopenhagen interpretation.
Table 15

Control

Patient

Quanta

(A4+A5)
Fine Quanta

0.564x10^{3}/h.20

Severe
Mild
Indistinct

0.424x10^{3}/h.20
0.574 x10^{3}/h.20
0.595 x10^{3}/h.20

(A2+A3)
Mid Quanta

0.770 x10^{3}/h.20X10^{3}

Severe
Mild
Indistinct

0.565x10^{3}/h.20x10^{3}
0.746x10^{3}/h.20x10^{3}
0.774x10^{3}/h.20X10^{3}

A1 (big Quanta)

1.097x10^{3}/h.20x10^{6}

Severe
Mild
Indistinct

0.804x10^{3}/h.20x10^{6}
1.021x10^{3}/h.20x10^{6}
1.048x10^{3}/h.20x10^{6}

Table 15
Between Table 14 and Table 15, we do the comparison, we find:
Quanta numbers in b (0500), AQB==MB
In b (500—1500), AQB==2.5 MB
In b(1500—2500) , AQB==4.5 MB
MB is unable to deliver the quantum activity in detail, it abandon the magnetic transfer, abandon the branch couplings among the AQB system; while AQB is able to deliver the quantum activity in detail, it includes the magnetic transfer, includes the branch couplings among the AQB system.
Thus, AQB is more complete, more fundamental and more substantial than MB.
Part three.
The significance of multiple b value DWI interpreted by advance quantum biology.
l The relation between and (P).；Z=====P/Z.
l Calculating the P of sections of 1）A1；2）(A2+A3) and 3) (A4+A5) of severe patients, mild patients and Indistinct patients.
l Calculating the P of the whole ROI of severe patients ,mild patients, Indistinct patient.
l Calculating of severe patients , mild patients, Indistinct patient.
For the significance of multiple b value DWI interpreted by advance quantum biology, we could do the comparison between MB and AQB.
There are two ways to do these comparisons:
a) Basic on quanta numbers;
b) Basic on the relation between AQB and MB.
In this article, we pursue b)..
3A) The relation between and (P).；Z=====P/Z.
From statistics, we assess the significance of multiple b value DWI interpreted by advance quantum biology [3,4]
Statistics under symplectic manifold:
1a） Distribution function (DF)
, Z==(uбnp.g.) Y== uбnp
Here, umean (expection)
Бdeviation
N—number of samples
pProbability, percentage
g.Gaussian distribution and hypothesis of Central limit theory
DF Distribution function
 symplectic manifold, and it is “pde”partial differential equation
1b）Cumulative distribution function (CD)
Z==(uбnp.g.) Y==uбn, it could be expressed by ==
[]
1c）quantile function (Q)
Z==(uбnp.g.) Y==p
Due to A) Q== B) == Thus, we could have Chi square distribution
#1: Z=====P/Z.
(That is important)
1d) Further, according Q Mix idea, if Z
And ==0
Thus, we have
#2: Z(p)==p1x(1/Z)x(Z1/Z)+ p2x(1/Z)x(Z2/Z)+ p3x(1/Z)x(Z3/Z)+….. pix(1/Z)x(Zi/Z).
3B) Calculating the P of sections of 1）A1；2）(A2+A3) and 3) (A4+A5) of severe patients, mild patients and Indistinct patients.
Under #1, Z=====P/Z;
we calculate the P of sections of 1）A1；2）(A2+A3) and 3) (A4+A5) of severe patients, mild patients and Indistinct patients.
a) In molecular biology (Current MRI), the activity inside is as (M):.
Table 16
M(A4+A5)

b(15002500)

M(A2+A3)

b(5001500)

M(A1)

b(0 500)

Table 16
M, as MB.
b) But according advance quantum biology, the quantum activity actually inside is as (Q)
Table 17
Q(A5)

A5a
(20002500)

A5b
(20002500)

A5c
(20002500)

A5d
(20002500)

A5e
(20002500)

Q(A4)

A4a
(15002000)

A4b
(15002000)

A4c
(15002000)

A4d
(15002000)


Q(A3)

A3a
(10001500)

A3b
(10001500)

A3c
(10001500)



Q(A2)

A2a
(5001000）

A2b
(5001000)




Q(A1)

A1a
(0500)





Table 17
c) Further, it is as the following
Table 18
Q(A4+A5)

(A4+A5)a

(A4+A5)b

(A4+A5)c

(A4+A5)d

(A4+A5)ex1/2

Q(A2+A3)

(A2+A3)a

(A2+A3)b

(A2+A3)cx1/2



Q(A1)

(A1)a





Table 18
In this (AQB) presentation:
In A1 time, Q(A1)==(A1)a==b(0500) is revealed. At the same time,(A2+A3),(A4+A5) are existed, but they act as magnetic transfer , thus, they are not revealed out.
In (A2+A3) time, Q(A2+A3)== b(5001500) is revealed. At the same time,(A4+A5) are existed, but act as magnetic transfer , thus, they are not revealed out
In (A4+A5) time, Q(A4+A5)==b(15002500) is revealed. At the same time, the b (250010000) are existed, but act as magnetic transfer, thus, they are not revealed out
Thus, we compare (AQB) to (MB)
According ==
1) For A1. Z==1. Compare advance quantum biology (AQB) to current molecular biology （MB）,there is no change.
2) For (A2+A3), Compare advance quantum biology （AQB） to current molecular biology （MB）, there are change: In (A2+A3), Z==Q/M==2.5, due to: ==；
here, n(Q)==2.5 x [n(M)], (uxu)(Q)==（2.5）x (2.5) x M(uxu）
(Understand )
Thus，for (A2+A3), Q (==15.625
4) In the same reason, for (A4+A5), Q(.
According [11]: Z=====P/Z., and above Q( in (A2+A3) and (A4+A5).
Thus, we calculate the P of sections of 1）A1；2）(A2+A3) and 3) (A4+A5) of severe patients, mild patients and Indistinct patients
We have the result as
Table 19

Control

Patient

Quanta

P(Q)

(A4+A5)
Fine Quanta

2.538x10^{3}/h.20

Severe
Mild
Indistinct

1.908x10^{3}/h.20
2.583 x10^{3}/h.20
2.678 x10^{3}/h.20

0.001
0.029
0.006

(A2+A3)
Mid Quanta

1.925x10^{3}/h.20X10^{3}

Severe
Mild
Indistinct

1.413x10^{3}/h.20x10^{3}
1.865x10^{3}/h.20x10^{3}
1.935x10^{3}/h.20X10^{3}

0.001
0.003
0.095

A1 (big Quanta)

1.097x10^{3}/h.20x10^{6}

Severe
Mild
Indistinct

0.804x10^{3}/h.20x10^{6}
1.021x10^{3}/h.20x10^{6}
1.048x10^{3}/h.20x10^{6}

0.001
0.11
0.063

Table 19
The number of quanta, p in the severe patient group, mild patient group, indistinct patient group.
For p, except 0.09,0.11,0.063, others are less than 0.05.
We have the conclusion: Thus, in almost every section, p is less than 0.05; significant from control.
3C) Calculating the P of the whole ROI of severe patients ,mild patients, Indistinct patient
Under *2: Z(p)==p1x(1/Z)x(Z1/Z)+ p2x(1/Z)x(Z2/Z)+ p3x(1/Z)x(Z3/Z)+….. pi x(1/Z)x(Zi/Z)， we calculate the p of whole quanta of severe patients ,mild patients, Indistinct patient.
Here, Z==1+15.625+91.125==107.75.
Z1==1, Z2==15.625, Z3==91.125.
Thus ZQ(p)==p1x(1/107.75)x(1/107.75)+ p2x(1/107.75)x(15.625/107.75)+ p3x(1/107.75)x(91.125
/107.75)
ZM(p)==P1x1/3x1/3+p2x1/3x1/3+p3x1/3x1/3==1/9(p1+p2+p3)
Thus, we have :
Table 20
Control group

Patients
Severe
(Mean/p)

Patients
Mild
(Mean/p)

Patients
Indistinct
(Mean/p)

(A)1 [b(0—500)]
(1.097)

0.804/
(0.001)

1.021/
(0.11)

1.048/
(0.063)

(A2+A3)[b(500—1500)]
(0.770)

0.565
(0.001)

0.746
(0.054)

0.774
(1.477)

(A4+A5)
B(15002500)
(0.564)

0.424
(0.001)

0.574
(2.697)

0.595
(0.533)

M(p)

0.00033

0.318

0.250

Q(p)

<0.0001

0.021

0.006

Table 20
The p of whole quanta of ROI of severe patients, mild patients and Indistinct patient.
M(p), the p according MB; Q(p), the p according AQB
Thus, comparing to control, in patients ( mild, indistinct),
a) According the view of molecular biology, p is larger than 0.05; no significant from control.
b) According the view of Advance quantum biology, p is less than 0.05; significant
from control.
c) For severe patient, according the view of Advance quantum biology as well as the view of molecular biology, p is less than 0.05; significant from control; but more significant according AQB
3D) Calculating of severe patients , mild patients, Indistinct patient.
Under *2: Z(p)==p1x(1/Z)x(Z1/Z)+ p2x(1/Z)x(Z2/Z)+ p3x(1/Z)x(Z3/Z)+….. pi x(1/Z)x(Zi/Z)， we calculate the p of of severe patients ,mild patients, Indistinct patient.
1）Under current physics (MB), we have:
Table 21

Control

Severe

mild

Indistinct

A2+A3
[b(500—1500)]

0.770 (0.029)

0.565 (0.150)

0.746 (0.047)

0.774 (0.045)

A4+A5
[b(1500—2500)]

0.564 (0.040)

0.424 (0.120)

0.574 (0.045)

0.595 (0.037)

(A4+A5)/ (A2+A3)
)

0.735 (0.028)

0.810 (0.052)

0.773(0.033)

0.765 (0.028)

p


P< 0.001

P(0.038)

P (0.015)

Table 21
==(A4+A5)/ (A2+A3)
Thus,, for severe, mild, indistinct patients；p is less than 0.05; significant from control.
2 )According advance quantum biology, we have .
Table 22

Control

Severe

mild

Indistinct

A2+A3
[b(500—1500)]

0.770 (0.029)x 15.625

0.565 (0.150)
x15.625

0.746 (0.047)
X15.625

0.774 (0.045)
X15.625

A4+A5
[b(1500—2500)]

0.564 (0.040) x91,125

0.424 (0.120)
x91,125

0.574 (0.045)
x91,125

0.595 (0.037)
x91,125

(A4+A5)/ (A2+A3)

【0.735 (0.028)】x125/27

【0.810 (0.052)】x125/27

[0.773(0.033)]
x125/27

[0.765 (0.028)]
X125/27

P


P< 0.001
X15.625
/91.125
=
<< 0.001

P(0.038)
X15.625
/91.125
=0.006

P(0.015)
X15.625
/91.125
=0.003

Table 22
, for severe, mild, indistinct patient groups according AQB.
For severe group . P<<0.001, mild group, p==0.006, for indistinct group, p==0.003
Thus, in severe patients, mild patients, indistinct patients, compare to the control group, the quantum counts are more significant, their (p）are much less than 0.05^{}
^{Through this illustration, indeed,(A4+A5)/A2+A3) could be recognized as special MTR; Thus,(A4+A5)/A2+A3) indeed has substantial theoretical basic .}
^{Summary.}
^{For AQB, it could present out the total T2 signals, so, it provide more substantial content for differentiating the ROIs ,which could have huge potential for medicine and consciousness investigation.}
^{ }
^{Part four}
^{Discussion and conclusion.}
^{l }^{The five kinds of data processes and interpretation according MB (Brain multiple b value DWI as example)..}
^{l }Advance quantum biological data proceedings and interpretations^{}
l For T2 MRI signals, we could have three expresses.
^{l }^{ST2WI and MRI Hologram}
^{l }^{Notion}
^{l }^{Next.}
^{In this article, according the hypothesis of advance quantum biology and the idea of MRI Hologram, basic on one of research article of multiple b value DWI, I present out a new data process and interpretation.}
^{1) }^{The five kinds of data processes and interpretation according MB (Brain multiple b value DWI as example).}
^{In multiple b value DWI, usually there are five kinds of data processes and interpretation according MB (Brain multiple b value DWI as example).Table 19..}
^{A) }^{Individual interpretation without question. Article Reference [}^{6,7}^{],is such example. Proceeding one b value and interpreting under the physics structure (Network). According Table 23,it reveals out the signal of block (1), or [(1)+(2)]…or [(1)+(2)+(3)]…}
^{B) }^{Developing out high b value DWI, and proceeding and interpreting it ; due to more T2 signals are acquired, so a clearer physics structure (network) is revealed. Article Reference [}^{8}^{],is such example. Proceeding one high b value DWI, and interpreting under the physics structure (Network) . According Table 23, it reveals out the signal of block (1)+(2)+(3)+(4)+(5)+(6)+(7); or beyond.}
^{C) }^{Individual proceeding and interpretation with question. Article Reference [}^{9}^{] are such examples. Proceeding one b value, and interpreting under the physics structure (Network) . Due to the “normal” network cannot be developed out under such physics approach, and then, it raised up a question: behind these MRI signal from current b value DWI, there must be some “intrinsic factors” existed. According Table 23, it reveals out the signal of block [(1)+(2)]+(?); or (1)+(2)+(3)+(?); [(1)+(2)+(3)+(4)+(5)]+(?) or beyond. }
^{Here,(?) is considered as “Intrinsic factors”.}
^{D) }^{Develop out multiple b value DWI, and combine these b value, interpreting according physic network. Article Reference [}^{10]}^{ is such example. Proceeding multiple b value DWI, getting individual physics network, and combining them together, interpreting under the physics structure (Network). According Table 23, it reveals out the signal of block [(1)]+[(1)+(2)]+[(1)+(2)+(3)+(4)]+… [(1)+(2)+(3)+(4)+(5)+(6) +(7)+(8)+(9)+(10)]}
^{E) }^{According the physics definition of b value, for multiple b value MRI, the fraction }^{ is developed. Article }^{[11]}^{ is such example. Proceeding multiple b value DWI under the idea of }^{, and interpreting under the ratio of physics structure } ^{ . According Table 23, it reveals out the signal of block [((4)+(5)]/ [(2)+(3)];.}
^{Table 23}
^{Table 23. Multiple b value DWI according MB}
^{ All of these are preceded and interpreted under the view of physics, the structure. They are proceeded and interpreted according MB }
2) The data proceeding and interpretation according AQB
^{According the hypothesis of advance quantum biology, and the idea of MRI Hologram, the life system is an advance quantum biological system; the quanta could be expressed by Hologram of ST2WI, ST1WI and SMTR (Reference [}^{1}^{] )}
21) In ST2WI==== {[α(j)—α(J+1)] [Te(j)—Te(J+1))]}.
According the hypothesis of advance quantum biology, the idea of MRI Hologram; we could deliver out the whole existence and behave of quanta of ROI of life system.(in the aspect of quanta radiate.)
22) Thus, In ST2WI^{ ==}==(bD) db dD ;
==;
Further, ST2WI^{ ==}==.
According the hypothesis of advance quantum biology, the idea of MRI Hologram,the definition of multiple b value DWI ,we could apply the multiple b value DWI to deliver out some of the existence and behave of quanta of ROI of life system . (In the aspect of quanta radiate;T2.)
That means, for multiple b value DWI, other than proceeding the MRI signal under the view of molecular biology (Molecules and beyond), we also could proceed them under the view of advance quantum biology, which is more fundamentally
According this concept, in this article, basic on reference [11], we deliver out the quanta of the ROI we study.
Thus, for multiple b value DWI, there are two data proceedings and interpretations
A) Molecular biological data proceedings and interpretations，We assigned it as (MB) as discussion above.(Table 19)
B) Advance quantum biological data proceedings and interpretations，We assigned it as (AQB).
(Table 24)
Table 24
1x10

2x10

3x10

4x10

5x10

6x10

7x10

8x10

9x10

10x10

1x9

2x9

3x9

4x9

5x9

6x9

7x9

8x9

9x9


1x8

2x8

3x8

4x8

5x8

6x8

7x8

8x8



1x7

2x7

3x7

4x7

5x7

6x7

7x7




1x6

2x6

3x6

4x6

5x6

6x6





1x5

2x5

3x5

4x5

5x5






1x4

2x4

3x4

4x4







1x3

2x3

3x3








1x2

2x2









1x1










Table 24
Black blocks are the presentation of MB, red blocks plus black blocks are the presentation AQB
Between Table 23 and 24, they are much different.
For Multiple b value DWI, we do the comparison according Table 23 and Table 24. .
In this article, it clear demonstrates，for the content of ROI:
a) AQB could express more content than MB.[(Red blocks+ Black blocks)>>(Black blocks)]
b) AQB is more fundamental than MB. AQB could catch up the rich content of the Qi and Shen (consciousness).,while MB is unable to catch the rich content of QI and Shen
c) AQB is able to reveal the detail magnetic transfer of ROI; MB is only able to reveal the MRI signal which induced by RF of precession and slight magnetic transfer.
d) For demonstrating the difference of ROIs, AQB is more sensitive and more substantial than MB.
Thus, for ROIs, MB only is the epiphenomenal illusion, while AQM is the fundamental presentation.
More detail:
According the A,B,C,D and E above mentioned ( References [6,7][8][9][10][11]).
A), According Table 24, A) is only able to present out some “low level of parts” of [(1x1), (1x2),…(1x10)]some of black column; it is unable to present out the rest of [(1x1), (1x2),…(1x10)]some of black column ; and the red components.
B) According Table 24, B) is only able to present out some “high level parts” of [(1x1), (1x2),…(1x10)] some of black column; it is unable to present out the rest of [(1x1), (1x2),…(1x10)] some of black column; and the red components.
C) According Table 24, C) is only able to present out some of [(1x1), (1x2),…(1x10)]; it is unable to present out the rest of [(1x1), (1x2),…(1x10)] some of black column; and the red components; but it put these as “Intrinsic factor”. Indeed, the socalled “intrinsic factor” mainly is the “red component”.
D) According Table 24, D) is able to present out some of [(1x1), (1x2),…(1x10)] in a distorted way: [(1x1)]+[(1x1) +(1x2)] +[(1x1)+(1x2)+(1x3)].…+[(1x1)+(1x2)+(1x3)] …+(1x10)].Thus ,big quanta are overcalculated, but fine quanta are undercalculated. It is unable to present out the rest of [(1x1), (1x2),…(1x10)] some of black column; and the red components;
E) According Table 20, E) is able to present out the ratio between two different parts: [(1x1), (1x2),…(1x10)]/ [(1x1), (1x2),…(1xn)], here, n<10. Indeed, that is the ratio between two different parts of some of black column; it is unable to present out the rest of [(1x1), (1x2),…(1x10)] some of black column; and it is unable to express the contents of the red components.(Basic on MB, it proposed this idea; that is amazing)
According MB data process and interpretation, there are above five conditions. From the view of existence and behave of quanta, all these five conditions are not able to present out their presentation and activity completely and substantially. They are the epiphenomenal illusion of T2, the epiphenomenal illusion of quanta radiation.
In another hand, according table 24, for AQB, it could completely present out T2 MRI signals, present out the quanta radiation: included black column and red components. Obviously, AQB presentation is more substantial.(Table 24)
3) Three presentations of T2 MRI signals
Thus, for T2 MRI signals, we could conclude:
A) For T2WI, T2*, and other T2 modes (FMRI, RFMRI,ALFF….), the T2 MRI signals they delivered out only is a tangent of whole T2 MRI signals (Tangent< 5ms).
B) For the b value and multiple b value DWI according MB proceeding and interpretation, the T2 MRI signals they delivered out is a block of whole T2 MRI signals (In Table 24,some of the black column)
C) The b value and multiple b value DWI according AQB proceeding and interpretation, the T2 MRI signals they delivered out is the whole T2 MRI signals if b value is high enough.(In Table 24, the black column and the red component).
Thus, T2 MRI signal, the C) presentation is more completely, more fundamentally and more substantial than A) or B).For addressing the T2 MRI signal in physics level, in Qi level and in Shen level , C) presentation could provide more significant advantage than B) and A).
[Of course, B) is somewhat better than A ].
4) ST2WI and Hologram ^{ }
If these are validated, ST2WI could be delivered out; further, with MPRAGE, TI is put in, ST1WI could be delivered out, SMTR could be delivered out, negative entropy could be delivered out, the complete quantum activity behind molecules could be depicted out. The AQB is prevailed. That would bring huge exciting in medicine, biology, human consciousness research and others. Reference [1], [15]
5) Notion.
For multiple b value DWI, how many sections of b value DWI we should select for each ROI? This is a question. From my primary study, 5 to 30 b value (010000) could be chosen; between them, no difference in principle; but usually, if we choice more number of b value DWI, we could get more detail magnetic transfer, more detail branch’s coupling.(There could be a Pareto optimal choice existed) Reference [1]
6) While these are only primary works for AQB, a lot of further verifications are needed to be done. AQB is only a hypothesis, PQS mode of MRI (Hologram of MRI) is not prevailed in scientific field. Thus, how to verify AQB? It is difficult. Now, for multiple b value DWI, it is prevailed; so, we could precede multiple b value DWI to validate AQB.
AQB could provide the new data process and interpretation for multiple b value DWI; while the new data process and interpretation for multiple b value DWI could validate AQB.
7) Immediately works could be done
^{a) }According this new proceeding and interpretation of AQB, between in vivo brain and Ex vivo brain, experiment of multiple b value DWI [b(010000)] can be done. Through this experiment, it could clearly verify : In the section of QI and Shen(Consciousness) ,there are much more quantum content in in vivo brain than ex vivo. Reference [12] ^{}
^{b) }For assessing the degree of coma by MRI, there already had been some investigations [13][14]; but no satisfied result had been made. For brain, if we do multiple b value DWI according the AQB data proceeding and interpretation, we could most likely have much more satisfied result, which could be resulted a clear objective classification of coma. ^{}
^{8) }^{This is a case presentation, through this case study, we clearly demonstrate:}^{}
^{ a) some of contents of AQB,}
^{b) how to carry the MRI Hologram; }
^{c) how significant is this idea.}
^{Thus, AQB, MRI hologram are not the phony idea, they are quite substantial, and they are worth to have further investigation}^{.}
References
BooKs and Research articles
1) Ming Wong, The Collection of Essays on the Issue of Consciousness and High Negative Entropy. Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. USA 2016 ISBN: 9781618961280
2) Ming Wong, Traditional Chinese Medicine and metaphysics. PublishAmerica 2010. ISBN:9781451277340
3) Rosner, B Fundamentals of biostatistics 5 Edition ISBN 7030103947
4) 杜荣骞,生物统计学.2003教育出版社 ISBN 7040121670
5) Line scan diffusion image Gudbjartsson H et al. Magn Reson Med 1996 Oct;36(4):50919..
6) Human Connectome Project
Components of the Human Connectome Project
Diffusion Tractography Human Connectome Project 7/24/2015
7) Hagmann , Patric et al ;A Mapping Human WholeBrain Structural Networks with Diffusion MRI Published: Plos July 4, 2007 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000597
8) Cammoun,L et al Mapping the human connectome at multiple scales with diffusion spectrum MRI , Proc. Intl. Soc. Mag. Reson. Med. 17 (2009) 1458
9) Betzel, Richard F. Betzel et al Generative models of the human connectome
Neuroimage september. 2015
10) Rosena, Bruce R. et al MGH–USC Human Connectome Project datasets with ultrahigh bvalue diffusion MRI
NeuroImage, Bruce R. Rosena et al 2015
11) Yasuhiko Tachibana,et al Analysis of Multiple BValue DiffusionWeighted Imaging in Pediatric Acute Encephalopathy PLoS One. 2013; 8(6): e63869. Published online 2013 Jun 3. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063869 PMCID: PMC3670889
12) Swati Rane and Timothy Q. Duong .Comparison of In Vivo and Ex Vivo Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Rhesus Macaques at Short and Long Diffusion Times The Open Neuroimaging Journal, 2011, 5, (Suppl 2M5) 172178
13) Athena Demertzi,et al .Intrinsic functional connectivity differentiates minimally conscious from unresponsive patients. BRAIN 2015: 138; 2619–2631  2619
14) Ying Mao PhD et al.How Are Different Neural Networks Related to Consciousness? ANNALS of Neurology 2015
15) José P. Marques et al MP2RAGE, a self biasﬁeld corrected sequence for improved segmentation and T1mapping at high ﬁeld NeuroImage journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ynimg
Cover letter for above case study.
For the multiple b value DWI (or DWI), it is widely used to investigate the entity of life, the entity of consciousness. How to process and interpret its T2 signal? There are different process and interpretation. But all of approaches are basic on the morphology, and translate these T2 signals into structure (Network and picture). Obviously, that is the approach of Molecular Biology (MB)
Basic on Schrodinger’s concepts of negative entropy and crystal, initialed with the idea of theory of yin and yang from Chinese philosophy, author did the independent investigation on the system of life, human, and consciousness. He established 1) the hypothesis of advance quantum biology (AQM), it considered behind the molecules, there are high crystal quanta existed which play very important role for life system.2) He developed out the MRI hologram to express these quanta. Further, author considered, for multiple b value DWI, its MRI signals can be processed and interpreted by AQM other than MB
According this idea, basic on one of multiple b value research article from PLOS ONE [11], a case study is done. In this research article, for the T2 signals,1) MB approach was done; 2) AQB approach is done. Conclusion is: According the bioinformation, AQB approach can lay out more complete, more fundamental and more substantial bioinformation than MB approach..
Indeed, for life system, MB express is the epiphenomenal illusion, while AQB express is the fundamental presentation.
The hypothesis of AQB and the idea of MRI hologram are new, they are needed to be further verified, and they are worth to be further investigated.
Notes:
1) For above case presentation, it expressed out parts of T2 MRI signal. For completely expressing out the T2 signal, b value must be extended to b==6000 , Te extended to 200ms. And increase the number of b value DWI (nà 30). Thus, we have ST2WIyang
2) T2 MRI signals are the signal of Yang; correspondently, there are the signals of Yin, which is sum of T1 MRI signal. There is MPRAGE, according the TI (50 to 2400), we can have block T1 MRI signals, then, basic on the idea of quanta dissipative sequence, and shimming technique, we can have SUM T1 MRI signal which correspondent to yin. Thus, we can have ST1WI—Yin.
3) According the amplitude of ST2WI, ST1WI, PD, T2* in each section, we can have the sum of MT in each section; we can calculate out the negative entropy of each section, we can calculate out the Quanta of each section.
4) Thus, we can identify the entities of the physics, the Qi, the Shen (consciousness). In the section of consciousness, we can calculate out and identify the big fine quanta, middle fine quanta and small fine quanta; and further calculate out their potential for crystallization. Thus, it provides an advance quantum biological approach to investigate the phenomenal of consciousness.
5) Thus, it is possible to have the advance quantum biology to present the life, the consciousness; in theory, it is sounded, in practice, it is accessible. Further, we can see, advance quantum biology indeed is advance Traditional Chinese Medicine (Advance TCM).
6) Due to Advance TCM is AQB, so that, for Advance TCM, in theory, it is sounded, in practice, it is accessible